The International Congress on the Education of the Deaf
The International Congress on Education of the Deaf (ICED) is the most prominent and influential body of inquiry in the field of education of deaf and hard of hearing individuals. It isprobably, the oldest consistently held conference in the field of education in general. The first congress was held in Paris in 1878, and was attended by 28 delegates from 6 countries- France, Sweden, Italy, Austria, Belgium and the United States (as observer).
The commonality of problems and challenges faced by professionals working with deaf children, may explain the reason why educators of the deaf began to hold international conferences so early in the history of education. Since the establishment of the first schools of deaf learners in Europe in the 17th century, issues like language and literacy development, academic achievement, preparation of teachers, the use of technological aids, school placement, curriculum choices and communication approaches have been core issues for inquiry and discussion among the specialists in the field of deaf education internationally.
The second International Congress, which was held in Milan in 1880 is well known for the resolutions adopted by the delegates in favour of the pure oral approach to communication in schools and the prohibition of manual communication. These resolutions had a great impact on the education of deaf students throughout the world for the next 100 years and up to the 12th ICED in 1963. During the Vancouver ICED in 2010 the Milan resolutions were rejected.
Since 1970, the ICED is being organized regularly every five years in different countries. Moving away from the policy of resolutions supporting a particular philosophy or methodology, the ICED has become a forum of sharing research, ideas and evidence based practice in the education of deaf and hard-of-hearing students. It attracts researchers, teachers, administrators, parents of deaf children, and professionals from allied fields such as medicine, psychology, speech, audiology, linguistics, sociology, and technology from many parts of the world. In recent years the usual average number of delegates is about 1,000 coming from more than 50 nations.
Locations and dates of International Congresses 
1.         Paris, France, 1878
12.        Washington, DC, USA, 1963
2.         Milan, Italy, 1880
13.        Stockholm, Sweden, 1970
3.         Brussels, Belgium, 1883
14.        Tokyo, Japan, 1975
4.         Chicago, USA, 1893
15.        Hamburg, Germany,  1980
5.         Paris, France, 1900
16.        Manchester, England, 1985
6.         Liege, Belgium, 1905
17.        Rochester, NY, USA, 1990
7.         Edinburgh, Scotland, 1907
18.        Tel Aviv, Israel,1995
8.         London, England, 1925
19.        Sydney, Australia, 2000
9.         West Trenton, USA, 1933
20.        Maastricht, The Netherlands, 2005
10.       Groningen, The Netherlands, 1950
21.        Vancouver, Canada, 2010 
11.       Manchester, England, 1958
22.        Athens, Greece, 2015
Unlike other Congresses, ICED is not the official body of a larger organisation and it has no formal secretariat. Each ICED is an independent event hosted by independent organization acting in its own right.
An ad hoc “International Committee” was formed in 1970 after the Stockholm Congress. The function of the International Committee is to decide on the site of the next Congress and the organisation that will manage the staging of the Congress. The committee meets at each International Congress and has traditionally comprised the Chairpersons of the organising committees of past, current, and future International Congresses as well members strategically invited to be broadly representative of the international regions taking part in the Congresses. In addition, membership of the International Committee is extended to the editors (or their representatives) of the major international academic and professional journals in the field of education of the deaf including, but not limited to: American Annals of the Deaf, Deafness and   Education International, Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, and     The Volta Review. A Chair of the International Committee is elected at each face-to-face meeting in order to oversee the process of eliciting bids for the next Congress and of decision making by the membership of the Committee.
At the meeting of the International Committee in Vancouver (Canada) in 2010 the responsibility of eliciting proposals to host the 23rd ICED in 2020, and for conducting the necessary discernment and decision-making processes, was designated to an executive committee. At the same meeting, the decision to award the honour of hosting the 22ndCongress (2015) to the Deaf Studies Unit of the Department of Primary Education of the University of Patras, Greece was ratified.


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